The history of the modern landscape begins with the paradigmatic shifts in gardening that were set in motion during the course of the 18th century and were fully in place by its end. In England and on the Continent, a new garden theory and a new social, economic, and cultural environment ensured that the design of gardens and landscapes would henceforth be different. This course covers the development of the new landscape idiom focusing on both the theory and practice of landscape design. Necessarily a survey, the course will examine trends and examples from Europe and America. Topics include public and private space in both city and country; the importance of technology, industrialization, social reform; and public parks; as well as ideology and ecology. The importance of historicism and national identity will also be examined.