The aims of planning have been broadly defined in terms of justice, efficiency, and environmental protection. This course, which will meet for the first half of the spring semester, will examine theories of justice and their implications for urban policy makers. In particular, it will focus on issues of democratic participation, diversity, and social equality. The course will interrogate these goals to inquire whether they are mutually supportive or not, whether they are practically realizable, and whether or not they can be attained without a sacrifice of efficiency and environmental protection. Readings will include selections from the works of John Rawls, Jurgen Habermas, Martha Nussbaum, Iris Marion Young, Nancy Fraser, and David Harvey.Class discussion is an essential part of the course. There will be a single written assignment consisting of a 15-20 page paper.