This course concentrates on four periods of modern architecture and planning in China. The first spans from the 19th century 'treaty ports' to the plans and architecture of the Nationalists. The second spans from the end of the civil war in the late 1940s to the end of the Cultural Revolution. The third is from the late 1970s reforms through to the period of the rise of the municipal state and Hypermodern architecture, with the fourth in the present era of 'new normals' and sustainability .The aim is to introduce students to this development. They are expected to attend to lectures, present a well-documented and illustrated presentation of an assigned project and assigned readings and participate in discussion. There are no prerequisites and the course is open to all GSD students.